Composting, worm farms and Bokashi buckets

Adding a compost bin, worm farm or Bokashi bucket to your household is a great way to help reduce the amount of food waste sent to landfill. It can work in partnership with your food and garden waste bin as each method accepts different food waste items. To help you get started, we've provided some tips on what to do and information on how worm farms, composting and Bokashi buckets can help your plants and garden grow.


Composting is a natural process where food and garden waste is broken down into rich organic material and soil conditioners. This process is called aerobic decomposition. Composting is easy. You can compost a wide range of food scraps and other materials. Compost bins can handle more waste than worm farms, making them a great option for larger households with gardens.


  • you can compost a wide range of food waste and other materials
  • adding compost to your garden adds nutrients and improves soil structure, helping your plants to grow
  • adding compost and mulch to your garden retains soil moisture, keeping your plants healthy while saving water
  • composting  is a great way to divert food waste from landfill, which helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 
  • composting reduces the cost of waste disposal in the community,


  • you will need to turn the materials regularly in your compost (we suggest doing this weekly)
  • make sure you have a garden to use your compost 
  • you will need to have space on bare earth in your garden to place the bin.

View our Composting Fact Sheet(PDF, 4MB) .

Worm farming

Worm farming uses specialised compost worms that break down food waste to produce a rich solid and liquid matter. This matter is called worm castings, or 'juice', and it is great for your garden soil. Worm farming is easy. Simply place your food scraps into the farm and let the worms do the work.

Unlike compost bins, you do not need access to bare earth. You can keep your worm farm in a garage, courtyard or on a balcony. You can even keep worm farms inside, making a great option for smaller households. Before getting started, consider the size of the farm you may need. Small worm farms may not have capacity to take large amounts of waste. Larger families may need a high capacity worm farm or consider using a compost bin instead.


  • worm juice and castings add nutrients to your garden and plants
  • worm farming diverts food waste from landfill, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
  • you don't have to use garden materials (just food waste is fine)
  • worm farms help to reduce the cost of waste disposal in the community.


  • worm farms need to be kept out of the sun, as they can die if they overheat
  • worms don't like citrus, so avoid putting lemons, oranges and other citrus fruits on the farm
  • unlike composting, you don't get as much solid material to use on your garden
  • if you are planning to go away for more than 2 weeks, you will need to arrange someone to look after them.

View our Worm Farming Fact Sheet(PDF, 4MB) .

Bokashi buckets

Bokashi is the Japanese word for 'fermented organic matter'. A Bokashi bucket is a sealed airtight container which can be used to ferment food scraps and turn your waste into rick nutrient soil. Bokashi buckets are small and take up little space, making them a great option for smaller homes or apartments.


  • unlike compost bins and worm farms, you can add a wide variety of food waste to your bucket such as meat and dairy
  • the fermentation process is much quicker than composting and produces less greenhouse gas
  • you can store Bokashi buckets inside or outside.


  • you will need to add a Bokashi spray or fermented grains to the food scraps in your bucket
  • keep the bucket lid closed to avoid inspects, rodents and smell.

View our Bokashi Bucket Fact Sheet(PDF, 372KB) .

To purchase a compost bin, worm farm or bucket, search for suppliers on line or contact your local garden centre, nursery or hardware store.

To learn more or get involved, subscribe to our Halve Our Waste e-Newsletter for tips and information on upcoming community events.